AI and Cognitive Science Foundations

B. Chandrasekaran, A. Goel and D. Allemang, "Connectionism and Information Processing Abstractions: the Message Still Counts More Than The Medium," AI Magazine , 9:4, pp. 24-34, Winter 1989. An abbreviated version with the same title appears in Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 11:1, 26-27, 1988.

B. Chandrasekaran, "What Kind of Information Processing is Intelligence?", The Foundations of Artificial Intelligence: A Sourcebook, Derek Partridge and Yorick Wilks, editors, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990, pp. 14-46.

B. Chandrasekaran, "Mechanistic and Rationalistic Explanations are Complementary," Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14:3, 1991, pp. 489-491.

B. Chandrasekaran and S.G. Josephson, "Architecture of Intelligence: The Problem and Current Approaches to Solutions," Current Science, Vol. 64, No. 6, March 1993, pp. 366 - 380. A slightly revised version appears in in Artificial Intelligence and Neural Networks: Steps Toward Principled Integration, V. Honavar and L. Uhr, editors, Academic Press, pp. 21-50.

Diagnostic Reasoning

B. Chandrasekaran and S. Mittal, "On Deep versus Compiled Knowledge Approaches to Medical Diagnosis," Proc. American Association for Artificial Intelligence Conference, Aug. 1982, pp. 349-354. An extended version with the same title appears in International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, Special Issue on Expert Systems, 19, 1983, pp. 425-436, and in Developments in Expert Systems, M. J. Coombs, editor, Academic Press, 1984, pp. 23-34. (The 1983 IJMMS version of the paper was reprinted in International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol 51, Issue 2, August 1999, pp. 357 - 368 in its 30th Anniversary Issue, which reprinted "the most highly cited and influential papers published in the journal" in its thirty years.)

B. Chandrasekaran and S.Mittal, "Conceptual Representations of Medical Knowledge for Diagnosis by Computer," in Advances in Computers, Vol. 22, Academic Press, 1983, pp. 217-293.

J.R. Josephson, B. Chandrasekaran, J.W. Smith and M.C. Tanner, "A Mechanism for Forming Composite Explanatory Hypotheses," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Special Issue on Causal and Strategic Aspects of Diagnostic Reasoning, May/June 1987, pp. 445-454.

W. Punch and B. Chandrasekaran, "An Investigation of the Roles of Problem-Solving Methods in Diagnosis," Second Generation Expert Systems, eds., J. M. David, J. P. Krivine, and R. Simmons, Springer-Verlag, 1993, pp. 687-702. An earlier version that appeared in Tenth Annual Workshop, Expert Systems & Their Applications, Second Generation Expert Systems, Avignon, 1990, is here.

(See also papers under Functional Representation.)

Design Problem Solving

B. Chandrasekaran, "Design Problem Solving: A Task Analysis," AI Magazine, Vol. 11, No. 4, Winter 1990, pp. 59-71. Also appears (in Japanese), Nikkei Artificial Intelligence Quarterly , Summer 1991, pp. 142-154, and anthologized in Knowledge Aided Design, M. Green, ed., Academic Press, London, 1992, pp. 25-46.

John R. Josephson , B. Chandrasekaran , Mark Carroll , Naresh Iyer, Bryon Wasacz, Giorgio Rizzoni , Qingyuan Li , David A. Erb, An Architecture for Exploring Large Design Spaces, Proc AAAI-98.   This paper is a product of research under a recent DARPA project.

(See also papers under Functional Representation.)

Knowledge Systems: General

B. Chandrasekaran and Ashok Goel, "From numbers to symbols to knowledge structures: Artificial Intelligence perspectives on the classification task," IEEE Trans. Systems, Man & Cybernetics, Vol. 18, No. 3, May/June 1988, pp 415- 424.

B. Chandrasekaran, "On Evaluating AI Systems for Medical Diagnosis,"
AI Magazine , Vol. 4, No. 2, 1983, pp. 34-37, and anthologized in Validating and Verifying Knowledge-Based Systems, Uma Gupta, Ed., IEEE Computer Society Press, 1991, pp. 260-265.

B. Chandrasekaran, Natural and Social System metaphors for Distributed Problem Solving: Introduction to the Issue, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. SMC-I I, no. l, pp. 1-5, January 1981.


D.A. Sylvan, A. Goel and B. Chandrasekaran, "Analyzing Political Decision-Making from an Information- Processing Perspective," American Journal of Political Science, 34(1), February 1990, pp. 74-123.

B. Chandrasekaran, "Models Versus Rules, Deep Versus Compiled, Content Versus Form," IEEE Expert , 6-2, April 1991, pp. 75-79.

B. Chandrasekaran, QP is More Than SPQR and Dynamical Systems Theory: Response to Sacks and Doyle, Computional Intelligence , Vol. 8, No. 2, 1992, pp. 216-222.

B. Chandrasekaran is a contributor to the book, The Knowledge Level in Expert Systems: Conversations and Commentary, eds., L. Steels and J. McDermott, Academic Press, 1993. The book is an edited transcript of discussions on the foundations of AI and knowledge-based systems among 12 researchers over three days.

B. Chandrasekaran, "Broader issues at stake," IEEE Expert, 9:4, pp. 10-13, August, 1994, comment on C. Elkan, "The paradoxical success of fuzzy logic," same issue, pp. 3-8.

B. Chandrasekaran, "Interview with Allen Newell," pp. 3 - 12, IEEE Expert, June 1993.

B. Chandrasekaran, "AI, knowledge and the quest for smart systems," IEEE Expert, December 1994.

B. Chandrasekaran , J. R. Josephson and V. R. Benjamins, "What are ontologies and why do we need them?," IEEE Intelligent Systems, Jan/Feb 1999, 14(1), pp. 20-26;.


Generic Tasks, Task Structures

B. Chandrasekaran, "Towards a Taxonomy of Problem Solving Types," AI Magazine, Vol. 4, No. 1, Winter/Spring 1983, pp. 9-17.

B. Chandrasekaran, "Expert Systems: Matching Techniques to Tasks," in Artificial Intelligence in Business , W. Reitman, ed., Ablex Publishing, 1984, pp. 116-132.

B. Chandrasekaran, "Generic Tasks in Knowledge-Based Reasoning: High-Level Building Blocks for Expert System Design," IEEE Expert, 1986, pp. 23-30. Also appears in Validating and Verifying Knowledge-Based Systems, U. Gupta (ed.), IEEE Computer Society Press, 1991, pp. 357-364.

B. Chandrasekaran, "Towards a Functional Architecture for Intelligence Based on Generic Information Processing Tasks," Proc. of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence , Milan, Italy, August 1987, pp. 1183-1192.

B. Chandrasekaran, "Task-structures, Knowledge Acquisition and Learning," Machine Learning, Vol. 4, pp. 339-345, 1989.

B. Chandrasekaran, T. Johnson, and J.W. Smith, "Task Structure Analysis for Knowledge Modeling," Communications of the ACM , Vol. 33, No. 9, September 1992, pp. 124-136; anthologized in Knowledge Oriented Software Design, ed., J. Cuena, North-Holland (Amsterdam), 1993, pp. 1-22.

T.R. Johnson, J.W. Smith, and B. Chandrasekaran, "Task-Specific Architectures for Flexible Systems," The Soar Papers: Research on Integrated Intelligence, eds., P. S. Rosenbloom, J. E. Laird, and A. Newell, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1993, pp. 1004-1026.

B. Chandrasekaran and T.R. Johnson, "Generic Tasks And Task Structures: History, Critique and New Directions," Second Generation Expert Systems, eds., J.M. David, J.P. Krivine, and R. Simmons, Springer-Verlag, 1993, pp. 239-280.

B. Chandrasekaran and J. R. Josephson, "The ontology of tasks and methods," AAAI 1997 Spring Symposium on Ontological Engineering, March 24-26, 1997, Stanford University, CA. If you have an acrobot reader, you can download the paper by clicking here .

F. Gomez and B. Chandrasekaran, "Knowledge Organization and Distribution for Medical Diagnosis," IEEE Transactions on

Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. SMC-I I, no. l, pp. 34-42, January 1981.


Explanation in Knowledge Systems

B. Chandrasekaran, M.C. Tanner, and J. Josephson, "Explaining Control Strategies in Problem Solving," IEEE Expert, 4:1, pp. 9-24, Spring 1989.

B. Chandrasekaran and W. Swartout, "Explanations in Knowledge Systems: The Role of Explicit Representation of Design Knowledge," IEEE Expert, Vol. 6, No. 3, June 1991, pp. 47-49.

M. C. Tanner, A. M. Keuneke, and B. Chandrasekaran, "Explanation Using Task Structure and Domain Functional Models," Second Generation Expert Systems, eds., J. M. David, J. P. Krivine, and R. Simmons, Springer-Verlag, 1993, pp. 599-626.

Functional Representation

V. Sembugamoorthy and B. Chandrasekaran, "Functional Representation of Devices and Compilation of Diagnostic Problem-Solving Systems," Experience, Memory, and Reasoning , edited by J. Kolodner and C. Reisbeck, Lawrence Erlbaum Associate publishers, June 1986, pp. 47-73.

B. Chandrasekaran, J.W. Smith, Jr., and J. Sticklen, "Deep Models and Their Relation to Diagnosis," Artificial Intelligence in Medicine , Vol. 1, No. 1, 1989, pp. 29-40.

Allemang, D., and B. Chandrasekaran, "Functional Representation and Program Debugging," Proc. Sixth Knowledge-Based Software Engineering Conf., IEEE, 1991, pp. 136-152.

Yumi Iwasaki and B. Chandrasekaran, "Design Verification Through Function and Behavior-Oriented Representations: Bridging the Gap Between Function and Behavior," Artificial Intelligence in Design '92, ed., John S. Gero, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992, pp. 597-616.

Y. Iwasaki, R. Fikes, M. Vescovi, B. Chandrasekaran, "How Things are Intended to Work: Capturing Functional Knowledge in Device Design.", Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence , (IJCAI-93), Chambery, France, ed., Ruzena Bajcsy, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc., San Mateo, California, Vol. 2, 1993, pp. 1516-1522.

B. Chandrasekaran, A. Goel, and Y. Iwasaki, "Functional Representation as Design Rationale," IEEE Computer , Special Issue on Concurrent Engineering, January 1993, pp. 48-56.

M. Vescovi, Y. Iwasaki, R. Fikes, and B. Chandrasekaran, "CFRL: A Language for Specifying the Causal Functionality of Engineered Devices," Proceedings of the Eleventh National Conference on AI (AAAI- 93), AAAI Press/MIT Press, July 1993, pp. 626-633.

B. Chandrasekaran, "Functional Representation and Causal Processes," Advances in Computers, Vol. 38, Academic Press, 1994, pp. 73-143.

B. Chandrasekaran, "Functional representations: A brief historical perspective," Applied Artificial Intelligence , special issue on functional reasoning, 8:173-197, 1994.

B. Chandrasekaran and John R. Josephson, "Function in Device Representation," Engineering with Computers, Special Issue on Computer Aided Engineering, (2000) 16:162-177.  In this paper, we finally got a chance to set down a whole bunch of ideas on device representation, especially on how to be clear about what one means by terms such as structure, behavior and function.  We also relate how devices arise in response to needs in the world, and how needs are transformed into device functions.  This builds on our earlier paper on "Representing Function as Effect" (see below), and makes connections with the earlier FR work.  

B. Chandrasekaran and H. Kaindl, "Representing Functional Requirements and User-System Interactions," to appear in Proc. AAAI-96 Workshop on Modeling and Reasoning about Function, Portland, OR, August 1996.

Diagrammatic Reasoning

B. Chandrasekaran and N. Narayanan, "Integrating Imagery and Visual Representations," Proceedings of the 12th Annual conference of Cognitive Science Society , Boston, MA, 1990, pp. 670-678.

N. H. Narayanan and B. Chandrasekaran, "Reasoning Visually About Spatial Interactions," Proceedings of the 12th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Sydney, Australia, August 1991, pp. 360-365.

B. Chandrasekaran, N. H. Narayanan, and Yumi Iwasaki, "Reasoning with diagrammatic representations," AI Magazine, 14:2, Summer 1993, pp. 49-56.

B. Chandrasekaran and N. Hari Narayanan, "Perceptual representation and reasoning," in Intelligent Systems: Concepts and Applications, editor: Leon S. Sterling, Plenum Press, New York and London, 1993, pp. 67-76.

J. Glasgow, N. H. Narayanan and B. Chandrasekaran, editors, Diagrammatic Reasoning: Cognitive and Computational Perspectives, MIT Press, 1995. Click here to look at a description of the book.

B. Chandrasekaran,  Diagrammatic Representation and Reasoning: Some Distinctions, an invited paper presented at the AAAI Fall 97 Symposium Series, Diagrammatic Reasoning, Boston, MA.

B. Chandrasekaran,  Multimodal Perceptual Rrepresentations and Design Problem Solving, an invited paper to be presented at VISUAL AND SPATIAL REASONING IN DESIGN: COMPUTATIONAL AND COGNITIVE APPROACHES, 15-17 June 1999, MIT, Cambridge, USA.

Real-Time Problem Solving

B. Chandrasekaran, R. Bhatnagar and D. D. Sharma, "Real-Time Disturbance Control," Communication of the ACM , August 1991, Vol. 34, No. 8, pp. 33-47.

Cognitive Modeling and Simulation

B. Chandrasekaran and John R. Josephson,  Cognitive Modeling For Simulation Goals: A Research Strategy for Computer-Generated Forces, to be presented at the  8th Conference on Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation, 11-13 May 1999, Orlando, FL.